Bibliography and Image Credits

Anacharsis  (600 BCE – 501 BCE)

Plutarch.  Plutarch’s Lives, the Translation Called Dryden’s 172 (A.H. Clough ed., 1859) [75 AD].

Image:  Greek vase with runners at the panathenaic games, ca. 530 BC.


Anonymous African Proverb

Image: World Vision Australia (2012). (


St. Thomas Aquinas  (1225 – March 7, 1274)

St. Thomas Aquinas, Treatise on Law, Summa Theologica 41 (1949) [1265–1274].

Image: MS Typ 443, Houghton Library, Harvard University.


Hannah Arendt  (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975)

Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism 466 (1951).

Image: Hannah Arendt, Stamp, Deutschland 2006. (


Saint Augustine (Augustine of Hippo)  (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430)

Saint Augustine, On Free Choice of the Will 8 (Thomas Williams trans.,1993).

Image: Image of Augustine from the Nuremberg Chronicles. Beloit College.


Bandamanna Saga  (c. 1000 CE)

Bandamanna Saga 58 (John Porter, trans., 1994).

Image: Map of Iceland commonly attributed to bishop Gudbrandur Thorlaksson, published in Additamentum IV to Ortelius’ map collection in Antwerp 1590. (


John Perry Barlow  (born October 3, 1947)

John Perry Barlow, A Declaration of Independence of Cyberspace (February 9, 1996). (

Image: John Perry Barlow, Joi, 2007. (


Sir William Blackstone  (July 10, 1723 – February 14, 1780)

4 William Blackstone, Commentaries *358.

Image:  Sir William Blackstone, S. Arlent Edwards, 1896.  Courtesy of Historical & Special Collections, Harvard Law School Library.


Derek Bok (Born March 22, 1930)

Derek Bok,  A Flawed System, Harv. Mag., May-June 1983, at 38, 41.

Image:  Portrait of Harvard President Derek Bok, 1982, Radcliffe Archives, Harvard University.


Simón Bolívar  (July 24, 1783 – December 17, 1830) 

El Libertador, Writings of Simón Bolívar 34 (2003). (Address delivered in Angostura, on the 15th of February, 1819, at the Opening of The

Second National Congress of Venezuela.).

Image:   Fernando Leal, Simón BOLIVAR, 1783-1830 South American creole soldier and statesman, who led revolution against Spanish rule, fighting Spanish royalist troops, fresco, 1931-33 (detail). Photo credit: Gianni Dagli Orti/The Art Archive at Art Resource, NY


Marcus Tullius Cicero  (106 BCE – 47 BCE)

Marcus Tullius Cicero, The speeches: pro lege Manilia, pro Caecina, pro Cluentio, pro Rabirio perduellionis 378-379 (H. Grose Hodge trans., 1927).

Image: Marcus Tullius Cicero, by Bertel Thorvaldsen as copy from roman original, 1799-1800 in Thorvaldsens Museum, Copenhagen.


Marian Wright Edelman  (born June 6, 1939)

Marian Wright Edelman, The Measure of Our Success, A Letter to My Children and Yours 40 (1992).

Image: Children’s Defense Fund.


George Eliot  (Marian Evans) (November 22, 1819 – December 22, 1880)

George Eliot, Romola. A Novel 639 (1863).

Image: Waiting at the River by Frederic Leighton.  Houghton Library, Harvard University.


Michel Foucault  (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984)

Michel Foucault, Vous Êtes Dangereux, Libération, June 10, 1983, at 20.

Image: Portrait of French philosopher Michel Foucault taken on December 16, 1981 at the radio broadcast studio Europe 1 in Paris, France. AP Photo/Alexis Duclos.


Anatole France  (April 16, 1844 – October 12, 1924) 

Anatole France, The Red Lily 75 (Modern Library 1927)(1894).

Image:  Anatole France, dessin de Auguste Leroux, 1906. (


Benjamin Franklin   (January 17, 1706 – April 17, 1790)

Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard’s Almanack, Being Almanacks of 1733, 1749, 1756, 1757, 1758, first written under the name of Richard Saunders 22 (Doubleday, Doran & Company 1928).

Image: Portrait of Benjamin Franklin, 1785, Joseph-Siffred Duplessis, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution. (


Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi  (October 2, 1869 –  January 30, 1948) 

2 M.K. Gandhi, Non-Violence in Peace & War 92 (1958) (1942-49).

Image:  Mohandas K. Gandhi, unknown author. (


Nadine Gordimer  (born November 20, 1923)

Nadine Gordimer, The Essential Gesture:  Writing, Politics and Places 92 (1988).

Image:  Portrait of Nadine Gordimer, 1986, Radcliffe Archives, Harvard University.


Gustavo Gutierrez  (born June 8, 1928)

Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation:  History, Politics and Salvation 202 (1973).

Image: Gustavo Gutiérrez Merino, 2007. (


Hillel  (c. 60 BCE – 10) 

Hillel, Talmud Bavli , Shabat 31a.

Image: Arthur Szyk, Hillel, Reproduced with the cooperation of The Arthur Szyk Society, Burlingame, CA


Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.   (March 8, 1841 –  March 6, 1935)

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., The Path of the Law, 10 Harv. L. Rev. 991, 1001(1897).

Image: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., Hardy, 1897.  Courtesy of Historical & Special Collections, Harvard Law School Library.

Immanuel Kant  (April 22, 1724 –  February 12, 1804)      

Emanuel Kant, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals §2, 44 (Lewis Beck, trans., 1969).

Image: Immanuel Kant, Gottleib Doeppler, 1898.  Courtesy of Historical and Special Collections, Harvard Law School Library.


Martin Luther King, Jr.   (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968)

Martin Luther King, Jr., Strength to Love 22 (1963).

Image: Martin Luther King, Jr. 1964, Marian S. Trikosko, photographer.  Library of Congress. (


Magna Carta of King John, A.D. 1215

Magna Carta, c. 40  (1215).

Image: Magna charta cum statutis angliae, (Great Charter with English Statutes). Manuscript, fourteenth century. Rare Book Collection, Library of Congress Law Library.  (


Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela  (born July 18, 1918)

Nelson Mandela, In His Own Words, From Freedom to the Future, Tributes and Speeches 70 (2003). (“Inaugural Speech, Pretoria, May 10, 1994”).

Image:  Nelson Mandela reads the oath of office Tuesday, May, 10, 1994 at the Union Building in Pretoria as he is sworn in as President of South Africa. Mandela is the first black President in the history of the republic. AP Photo/John Parkin.


William Murray, Lord Mansfield  (March 2, 1705 – March 20, 1793)

William Murray, Lord Mansfield, Barwell v. Anne Brooks, 99 Eng. Rep. 702, 703; 3 Doug. 371, 373 (1784).

Image: William Murray, Earl of Mansfield, Bartolozzi, Francesco (engraving, 1786). Courtesy of Historical & Special Collections, Harvard Law School Library. 

Javolenus Priscus   (born 60-70 CE)

Justinian,  Dig. 50.17.202 (Javolenus, Letters, bk. 11) (A. Watson. Trans., 1985). (530-533 AD).

Image:  Detail of a mosaic floor from the Vatican Museum. (,_mosaico_02.jpg)


Qur’an  (622 CE)

Qur’an, Surah IV:135 (An-Nisa’/ Women)  (Abdullah Yusuf Ali, trans., 1987).

Image:  Group Veiled Women with a Baby, Artist Unknown, late 19th century. Brooklyn Museum.  Purchase gift of Leona Soudavar in memory of Ahmad Soudavar. (


Oscar Romero  (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980)

Oscar Romero, The Violence of Love, The Pastoral Wisdom of Archbishop Oscar Romero 33 (1988).

Image:  Oscar Romero, Monsignor Oscar Arnulfo Romero slips a communion wafer to a member of his congregation in San Salvador, Jan. 13, 1980. Romero said in his sermon that violence was becoming a real possibility in El Salvador as the only alternative for complete social justice.  AP Photo/Valente Cotera.


Elizabeth Cady Stanton  (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902)

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, 1 History of Woman Suffrage  721 (1969) (1881).

Image: Portrait of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony together.  Photo by J.H. Kent, The Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.


Jonathan Swift   (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745)

Jonathan Swift, A Critical Essay Upon the Faculties of the Mind, in A Tale of a Tub and Other Stories 194 (1909) (1709).

Image:  Jonathan Swift, by Charles Jervas. National Portrait Gallery, London: NPG 4407. (


Terence (Publius Terentius Afer)  (195/4 BCE – 159 BCE)

Terence, The Comedies of Terence 180 (The Self-Tormentor, Act IV) (H. T. Riley, trans., 1859)(163 BC).

Image: Two female theatre masks. Roman fresco from the House of the Golden Bracelet (VI 17, 42) in Pompeii (


Xunzi  (300 BCE – 230 BCE)

Xunzi, Xunzi: Basic Writings 37-38 (Burton Watson, trans., 2003).

Image:  Ancient prose from the Xunzi, in seal script, before 1796, by Deng Shiru (1743—1805). Hanging scroll, ink on paper. The Palace Museum, Beijing. (,_in_seal_script.jpg)


A Group of Harvard Law School Library staff









Research and bibliography by the staff of the Harvard Law School Library, including Lisa Brem,            Aslihan Bulut, June Casey, Kyle Courtney, Mindy Kent, Michelle Pearse, Terri Saint-Amour, Carli Spina, Stephen Wiles and Suzanne Wones.

Photo:  Suzanne Wones, Michelle Pearse, Carli Spina, June Casey, Mindy Kent, Kyle Courtney.